delicious recipe
resep masakan indonesia
resep masakan indonesia
Adi Sucipto News and Entertainment

The Living and the Dead: Visionary Political Ideas of Alexander Radishchev

Dmitry Ya. Kalugin


The article is dedicated to the usage of the concept of prisutstvie (presence) in the texts by Alexander Radishchev. As the analysis shows, this concept is the meeting ground of three semantic fields: first of all, it signifies God’s presence in the Holy Gifts, secondly, it means ‘being together at one place’, as well as ‘court hearing’, and, finally, it is associated with the presence of an object in the mind (for example, in the work of Descartes, Hume, Locke). Thanks to Radishchev’s philosophical interests, his dependence on the language of European philosophers, and the circumstances of his biography, Radishchev’s works provide abundant material for analyzing the topoi of presence and absence in their different meanings. In spite of the fact that this concept is not essentially reflected by Radishchev, its usage has a systematic character: ‘presence’ emerges in special contexts. The article discusses three aspects of its usage. The first one is philosophical, linked with the idea of ‘personal identity’. The second aspect is intersubjective, connected with the presence-absence of a friend. The last one is political, where the utopian vision of the future is formulated. The conclusion of the article is that the concept of presence denotes a special regime of relations with another person, which is then correlated with the particular perception of the political society.


DOI: 10.31168/2305-6754.2021.10.2.7


conceptual history; presence; individuality; pedagogic; friendship; misticism; eschatology


Alekseev A. A., Slovoobrazovatel′naia i semanticheskaia struktura slova prisutstvie, Razvitie slovarnogo sostava russkogo iazyka XVIII veka: Voprosy slovoobrazovaniia, Leningrad, 1990, 48–57.

Alekseev A. A., Staroe i novoe v iazyke Radishcheva, XVIII vek, 12: A. N. Radishchev i literatura ego vremeni, Leningrad, 1977, 99–112.

Bell D. A., The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800, Cambridge, London, 2003.

Bogdanov K. A., Vrachi, patsienty, chitateli: Patograficheskie teksty russkoi kul′tury, St. Petersburg, 2017.

Bonnet J.-C., Les morts illustres, Les Lieux de mémoire, P. Nora, dir., 2: La Nation, Paris, 1986, 217–239.

Bonnet J.-C., Naissance du Panthéon. Essai sur le culte des grands hommes. L’esprit de la Cité, Paris, 1998.

Brown P., The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity, Chicago, 1981.

Bulanin D. M., Translatio studii: Put′ k russkim Afinam, Puti i mirazhi russkoi kul′tury, St. Petersburg, 1994, 87–154.

Cassin B., L'effet sophistique, Moscow, St. Petersburg, 2000.

Castle T., The Female Thermometer: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Invention of the Uncanny, Oxford, 1995.

Curtius E. R., European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, Princeton, 1953.

Derrida J., Politiques de l'amitié, Paris, 1994.

Faggionato R., Religioznyi eklektizm v Rossii na rubezhe 18-19 vv., Study Group on Eighteenth-Century Russia, 30, 2002, 49–67.

Geertz C. J., Interpretatsiia kul′tur, Moscow, 2004.

Ginzburg C., Reprezentatsiia: slovo, ideia, veshch′, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 33, 1998, 5–21.

Gowing A. M., Empire and Memory: The Representation of the Roman Republic in Imperial Culture, Cambridge, 2005.

Gumbrecht H. U., Production of presence: what meaning cannot convey, Moscow, 2006.

Habermas J., Postmetaphysical thinking, Massachusetts, 1992.

Kahn A., Self and Sensibility in Radishchev’s Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow: Dialogism, Relativism, and the Moral Spectator, Self and Story in Russian History, London, 2000, 280–305.

Kalugin D. Ya., Between philosophy and literature: The concept of presence in the texts of the 18th century, Die Welt der Slaven. Internationale Halbjahresschrift für Slavistik, 65/1, 2020, 7–17.

Kalugin D. Ya., From Genius-Creator to National Genius: Representations of Greatness in the Biographies of M.V. Lomonosov, Russian Literature, 99, 2018, 39–70.

Kalugin D. Ya., Vospitanie Prosta: transfer zapadnoevropeiskogo filosofskogo iazyka i praktiki «zaboty o sebe» v Rossii vtoroi poloviny XVIII veka, Yu. Kagarlitskiy, D. Kalugin, B. Maslov, eds., Poniatiia, idei, konstruktsii: ocherki sravnitel′noi istoricheskoi semantiki, Moscow, 2019, 225–294.

Kostin A. A., Religioznye vzgliady A. N. Radishcheva, XVIII vek, 24, St. Petersburg, 2006, 255–280.

Lazarchuk R. M., Proza Radishcheva i traditsiia epistoliarnogo zhanra, XVIII vek, 12: A. N. Radishchev i literatura ego vremeni, Leningrad, 1977, 72–82.

Lehnen J., Adventus principis. Untersuchungen zu Sinngehalt und Zeremoniell der Kaiserankunft in den Städten des Imperium Romanum, Frankfurt am Main, 1997.

Levitt M., Literaturnaia kul'tura Rossii XVIII veka, 6: Petra Philologica: professoru Petru Evgen′evichu Bukharkinu ko dniu shestidesiatiletiia, St. Petersburg, 2015, 41–57.

Levontina I. B., Slovarnye stat′i polei «lichnost′» i «zhalost′», Yu. D. Apresyan, ed., Prospekt aktivnogo slovaria russkogo iazyka, Moscow, 2010, 585−617.

Lotman Yu. M., Russo i russkaia kul'tura XVIII – nachala XIX veka, Idem, Izbrannye stat′i v trekh tomakh, 2: Stat'i po istorii russkoi literatury XVIII – pervoi poloviny XIX veka, Tallinn, 1992, 40–100.

Makogonenko G. P., ed., Novikov N. I., Izbrannye sochineniia, Moscow, Leningrad, 1951.

Makogonenko G. P., Radishchev i ego vremi︠a︡, Moscow, 1956.

Maslov B., Pindar and the Emergence of Literature, Cambridge, 2015.

McConnell A., A Russian Philosophe. Alexander Radishchev, 1749–1802, The Hague, 1964.

Miller T. A., Antichnye teorii epistoliarnogo stilia, Antichnaia epistolografiia, Moscow, 1967, 5–26.

Moore A. L., The Parousia in the New Testament, Leiden, 1966.

Page T., Utilitarianism and its Rebuttal in the Thought of A. N. Radishchev, Western Philosophical Systems in Russian Literature, ed. by A. M. Mlikotin, Los Angeles, 1979, 1–10.

Phillips M. S., Society and Sentiment: Genres of Historical Writing in Britain, 1740–1820, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000.

Plotnikov N. S., From “individuality” to “identity” (history of personality concepts in Russian culture), Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 91, 2008, 64–84.

Ricœur P., La memoire, l'histoire, l'oubli, Moscow, 2004.

Smith A., Teoriia nravstvennykh chuvstv, Moscow, 1997.

Sorokin Iu. S., Razvitie slovarnogo sostava russkogo literaturnogo iazyka. 30–90-e gody XIX v., Moscow, Leningrad, 1965.

Starobinski J., K poniatiiu voobrazhenie: vekhi istorii, Idem, Poeziia i znanie, 1, Moscow, 2002, 69−84.

Vinogradov V. V., Istoriia slov, Moscow, 1999.

Zhivov V. M., Uspenskij B. A., Tsar′ i Bog: Semioticheskie aspekty sakralizatsii monarkha v Rossii, B. A. Uspenskij, Izbrannye trudy. Semiotika istorii. Semiotika kul′tury, 2nd ed., Moscow, 1996.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Dmitry Ya. Kalugin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.